Huyết áp tiếng anh là gì

High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is a condition most often associated with adults. But kids can have high blood pressure too, even as infants.

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Bệnh tăng áp, còn gọi là tăng áp suất máu, là một trong hội chứng dịch thường nhìn thấy tốt nhất sống người Khủng tuổi. Nhưng con nít cũng bị tăng áp, thậm chí là là tthấp sơ sinh cũng mắc bệnh bệnh này.

High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is a condition most often associated with adults. But kids can have sầu high blood pressure too, even as infants.

high blood pressure in kids

An estimated 3% of kids have sầu high blood pressure. In babies, it"s usually caused by prematurity or problems with the kidneys or heart. While hypertension is far more common ahy vọng adults, the rate amuốn kids is on the rise, a trover that experts link to lớn the increase in childhood obesity.

Many kids & teens with high blood pressure have no other health problems but bởi have sầu a family history of hypertension và an unhealthy lifestyle — a bad diet, excess weight, stress, và insufficient physical activity.

If it goes untreated, high blood pressure can eventually lead to lớn damage to lớn the heart, brain, kidneys, và eyes. But if it"s caught early, monitored, and treated, a child with high blood pressure can lead an active sầu, normal life.

Understanding blood pressure

Blood pressure is the pressure the blood exerts against the blood vessel walls as the heart pumps. The pressure increases when the heart contracts & pushes blood inkhổng lồ the vessels and lowers when the heart relaxes, but there"s always a certain amount of pressure in the arteries.

Blood pressure is driven by two physical forces — the one from the heart as it pumps blood inlớn the arteries and through the circulatory system, and the other from the arteries as they resist this blood flow.

Blood pressure changes from minute to minute và is affected by activity & rest, toàn thân temperature, diet, emotional state, và medications.

long-term consequences of high blood pressure

When someone has high blood pressure, the heart and arteries have a much heavier workload. The heart must pump harder and the arteries are under greater strain as they carry blood. If high blood pressure continues for a long time, the heart and arteries may no longer work as well as they should. Other organs that are receiving the blood, lượt thích the kidneys và brain, may also be affected.

Having high blood pressure puts someone at a higher risk for stroke, heart attaông chồng, kidney failure, loss of vision, và atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

While high blood pressure doesn"t always cause symptoms, it still affects the body và puts a person at risk for those long-term health problems. In rare cases, severe hypertension can cause headaches, visual changes, dizziness, nosebleeds, heart palpitations, and nausea.

If your child has severe high blood pressure và has any of these symptoms, seek medical care immediately.

Measuring blood pressure

Doctors measure blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer, which has a cuff that"s wrapped around the upper arm và pumped up to create pressure. When the cuff is inflated, it compresses a large artery in the arm, stopping the blood flow for a moment. Blood pressure is measured as air is gradually let out of the cuff, which allows blood khổng lồ flow through the artery again.

The doctor or nurse will also put a stethoscope over an artery to hear the first pulse as the blood flows through — this is the systolic pressure (or the pressure at the peak of each heartbeat). The diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is resting between beats) is noted when the sounds disappear.

When a blood pressure reading is taken, the higher number represents the systolic pressure and the lower number represents the diastolic pressure. For example: 120/80 (120 over 80) means that the systolic pressure is 120 và the diastolic pressure is 80.

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Blood pressure also can be measured by automated devices, which are good for screening, but a manual blood pressure is more accurate.

As kids grow, their blood pressure increases from a systolic pressure of about 70-90 in an infant lớn adult values in a teenager. Among mỏi young kids, the "normal" range will depkết thúc on gender, age, & height; your doctor will be able to lớn compare your child"s blood pressure with national norms.

In kids, high blood pressure is defined as a blood pressure greater than the 95th percentile for their age, height, and gender (in other words, 95% of kids of the same age, height, & gender will have blood pressure below this number).

It"s not unusual for a first blood pressure reading to lớn be high because a child is nervous, so the doctor will likely take three readings and use an average of the three to determine whether your child has high blood pressure or is at risk for developing it.

Some doctors use a kiểm tra called ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in which a child wears a blood pressure cuff all day. Some consider it more accurate than blood pressure tests in the doctor"s office because the child is less likely to be affected by any áp lực from the doctor visit.

Causes of high blood pressure

The causes of high blood pressure differ, depending on the age of the child. The younger the child, the more likely the high blood pressure is linked khổng lồ some other illness.

High blood pressure among muốn infants most commonly occurs in those born prematurely. Some newborns have sầu high blood pressure because of problems with the kidneys (most commonly), lungs, heart, or vascular system. Often, these problems are due lớn bronchopulmonary dysplasia, an immaturity of the lungs in premature babies, or problems like coarctation of the aorta, a narrowing of part of the major blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart.

Among school-age kids and teens, hypertension is usually linked khổng lồ excess weight. In some cases it"s due to lớn a problem with the kidneys, although other conditions — lượt thích abnormalities in the blood vessels và hormonal disorders — can also be responsible. Some medications (such as steroids or oral contraceptives) can lead khổng lồ high blood pressure, as can overconsumption of alcohol & illegal drugs.

diagnosing high blood pressure

Because high blood pressure usually doesn"t produce any symptoms, diagnosing the condition in kids can be tricky. Blood pressure varies a lot from day lớn day so several blood pressure checkups are often necessary to lớn make the diagnosis.

The only way lớn know whether a child has high blood pressure is to lớn get it checked regularly. Doctors usually start measuring blood pressure during routine checkups when kids are 3 years old. So it"s important not to lớn miss these appointments, particularly if your child is obese or if there"s a family history of high blood pressure.

treating high blood pressure

If an underlying illness is causing hypertension, treating that illness may be enough to get the blood pressure bachồng khổng lồ normal. If there"s no underlying illness, the doctor may recommover weight loss, increased intake of fruits and vegetables, decreased salt intake, increased exercise, and even relaxation techniques. Kids with hypertension should also quit or never start smoking, which can worsen the long-term associated heart problems.

Most doctors prefer not to lớn prescribe medication for kids with mild hypertension. However, in cases in which lifestyle changes vì chưng not bring improvement, medications may be necessary.

Exercise và doing sports is encouraged for all patients whose hypertension is not severe or is well-controlled. In fact, staying fit is the key lớn both weight and blood pressure control.

If your child is overweight, a weight-loss program monitored by your doctor & a minimum of 30 minutes of aerobic exercise every day may be recommended. But kids with severe hypertension should not participate in weight- or power-lifting, bodybuilding, or strength training until their blood pressure is under control and a doctor OK"s it.

Although rare in kids, mild to moderate hypertension over time can cause damage lớn the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. Diagnosing and treating high blood pressure will help prsự kiện this damage.

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